Posts Tagged ‘history’
02 Jul

The Emergence Of Polygraphy

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It is said that soon newspapers and other printed materials will sink into oblivion, and dislodge them electronic publications, but, however, newspaper business is still profitable. So, thriving print shop. Fashionable gifts today are not all kinds of printed postcards with photos if you want to do it quickly printing help in this. Printing – a branch of the printing industry, which is the reproduction of printed materials. So how did the this industry? Below are some interesting facts about the creation of printing in the world. The prerequisites for the emergence of printing served more oral folk stories. For most of its history, humanity has lived without books, because there were other concerns, it was necessary to produce food and feed his family.

But when people began living in large groups, when there were cities, the volume of information received was so great that the speech and memory were not enough. Then there was a written language. The three main writing system emerged in the states of China, Babylon and Egypt. The Egyptians even 4000 years ago drove his writings on the pyramids in the tombs of their pharaohs. Written characters are preserved and homes for the inhabitants of Babylon. Another wrote on clay tablets, of which were public library's. Most probably known in the history books are monks of the Middle Ages.

The first center of this writing Vivarium was a monastery, founded by Senator Cassiodorus (485-580 gg.). Who established a library and studio correspondence books. Migrant monks was extremely educated, they have the knowledge in the field of logic, grammar, rhetoric. Kassodor Senator and created his own book 'On the sciences and the arts. " It included information from the fields of arts and sciences as mathematics, medicine and music. More recently acted Tours, Canterbury, St. Gallen, Korbiysky, and other centers knigopisaniya at monasteries. At the beginning of XVIII century in the age of Peter, in Russia, are beginning to appreciate education, opening schools and secular schools. New changes dictate their own rules, printing should serve the state, but failed experience publishing books from abroad, leading the then masters of the idea to open engraving shop. In the pictures of the then time vividly portrayed the latest news, and uneducated people also attached to the news. Engraving become a social tool, it should emphasize the development of the country, to demonstrate the European orientation culture. Next were produced estampnye sheets on which were depicted triumphal processions and festivities. Began to appear and the first newspaper, first in St. Petersburg and then in Moscow. The emergence of civil printing publications represented a significant step forward in the development of Russian education. Yes, and in general appearance periodicals led to the creation of so-called "fourth power". Media has always been and remains partly by the impact of not public opinion. But without the printing would not exist and it.

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11 Jun

Chuguevskaya Treasures

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(Start Okonchanie. see number 44 "Red Star" on October 29) Perhaps the most common finds are coins. I know in Chuguyev a lot of people who had gathered for their own gardens entire numismatic collection – from copper Peter dimes to silver Nicholas dvugrivennikov and early Soviet coins. Most of them do not represent great value – no material or historical. But there are exceptions Coin "Wild Field"? Unprepossessing copper coin – a curve with a half-time of the erased figure This discovery even want to throw out contempt, so as not to spoil your view set previously found neat round coins with eagles and royal monograms. Fortunately, this "cripple" is not thrown away.

She fell into the hands of an archeologist Gennady Whistler, who immediately thought of the ancient origin of the coins. And he showed her authoritative experts – numismatists. That confirmed the hunch and determined ownership and the dating of the coin: the end of the pool of Horde xiii – the beginning of xiv century. Pools, as called small coins in the Middle East and the Golden Horde, struck on blanks, fabricated from rod, forged or stretched to a certain diameter. Rod is cut to the markup and thus obtained piece of ivy and annealed before applying the stamp. The thickness of the workpiece provided mixed. One end, which accounts cut the – thicker, the opposite, which accounted for more than a strong hammer blows – thinner. The image is applied by stamping dies that were made of steel rods circular cross-section of the required diameter.

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